Transforming carbon dioxide into valuable chemicals and fuels, is a promising tool for environmental and industrial purposes. Here, we present catalysts comprising of cobalt (oxide) nanoparticles stabilized on various support oxides for hydrocarbon production from carbon dioxide. We demonstrate that the activity and selectivity can be tuned by selection of the support oxide and cobalt oxidation state. Modulated excitation (ME) diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) reveals that cobalt oxide catalysts follows the hydrogen-assisted pathway, whereas metallic cobalt catalysts mainly follows the direct dissociation pathway. Contrary to the commonly considered metallic active phase of cobalt-based catalysts, cobalt oxide on titania support is the most active catalyst in this study and produces 11% C2+ hydrocarbons. The C2+ selectivity increases to 39% (yielding 104 mmol h−1 gcat−1 C2+ hydrocarbons) upon co-feeding CO and CO2 at a ratio of 1:2 at 250 °C and 20 bar, thus outperforming the majority of typical cobalt-based catalysts.
Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science, Volume 32, Issue 1, January 2022. The apparent dichotomy between information processing and dynamical approaches to complexity science forces researchers to choose between two diverging sets of tools and explanations, creating conflict and often hindering scientific progress. Nonetheless, given the shared theoretical goals between both approaches, it is reasonable to conjecture the existence of underlying common signatures that capture interesting behavior in both dynamical and information processing systems. Here, we argue that a pragmatic use of integrated information theory (IIT), originally conceived in theoretical neuroscience, can provide a potential unifying framework to study complexity in general multivariate systems. By leveraging metrics put forward by the integrated information decomposition framework, our results reveal that integrated information can effectively capture surprisingly heterogeneous signatures of complexity—including metastability and criticality in networks of coupled oscillators as well as distributed computation and emergent stable particles in cellular automata—without relying on idiosyncratic, ad hoc criteria. These results show how an agnostic use of IIT can provide important steps toward bridging the gap between informational and dynamical approaches to complex systems.
Lung emphysema and chronic bronchitis are the two most common causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Excess macrophage elastase MMP-12, which is predominantly secreted from alveolar macrophages, is known to mediate the development of lung injury and emphysema. Here, we discovered the endolysosomal cation channel mucolipin 3 (TRPML3) as a regulator of MMP-12 reuptake from broncho-alveolar fluid, driving in two independently generated Trpml3−/− mouse models enlarged lung injury, which is further exacerbated after elastase or tobacco smoke treatment. Mechanistically, using a Trpml3IRES-Cre/eR26-τGFP reporter mouse model, transcriptomics, and endolysosomal patch-clamp experiments, we show that in the lung TRPML3 is almost exclusively expressed in alveolar macrophages, where its loss leads to defects in early endosomal trafficking and endocytosis of MMP-12. Our findings suggest that TRPML3 represents a key regulator of MMP-12 clearance by alveolar macrophages and may serve as therapeutic target for emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Claudia Stoicescu, Quinten Lataire, Karen Peters, Joseph J Amon, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Robert Ali, Apinun Aramrattana, Ivanhoe C Escartin, Ma Inez Feria, Sangeeth Kaur, Riza Sarasvita, Sam Nugraha, members of the International AIDS Society–Lancet Commission on Health and Human Rights
In March, 2012, 12 UN entities called on governments worldwide to close compulsory drug detention and rehabilitation centres for people “suspected of using drugs or dependent on drugs, people who have engaged in sex work, and children who have been victims of sexual exploitation” because of health and human rights concerns.1 In 2020, 13 UN agencies reiterated that statement, focused on centres in Asia and the Asia Pacific region, citing continued human rights violations, including lack of due process, forced labour, inadequate nutrition, physical and sexual violence toward detainees, and denial of evidence based drug dependence treatment and basic health care services in these facilities.
Air pollution contributes to the global burden of disease, with ambient exposure to fine particulate matter of diameters smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) being identified as the fifth-ranking risk factor for mortality globally1. Racial/ethnic minorities and lower-income groups in the USA are at a higher risk of death from exposure to PM2.5 than are other population/income groups2,3,4,5. Moreover, disparities in exposure to air pollution among population and income groups are known to exist6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17. Here we develop a data platform that links demographic data (from the US Census Bureau and American Community Survey) and PM2.5 data18 across the USA. We analyse the data at the tabulation area level of US zip codes (N is approximately 32,000) between 2000 and 2016. We show that areas with higher-than-average white and Native American populations have been consistently exposed to average PM2.5 levels that are lower than areas with higher-than-average Black, Asian and Hispanic or Latino populations. Moreover, areas with low-income populations have been consistently exposed to higher average PM2.5 levels than areas with high-income groups for the years 2004–2016. Furthermore, disparities in exposure relative to safety standards set by the US Environmental Protection Agency19 and the World Health Organization20 have been increasing over time. Our findings suggest that more-targeted PM2.5 reductions are necessary to provide all people with a similar degree of protection from environmental hazards. Our study is observational and cannot provide insight into the drivers of the identified disparities.
Key messagesRumination syndrome should be considered in any patient who presents with recurrent regurgitation without associated retching or significant nausea. Behavioural therapies including diaphragmatic breathing and biofeedback are effective treatments for rumination syndrome and have the largest evidence bases. Following treatment, most patients have large reductions in their frequency of regurgitation. Introduction When translated into English, the Latin word ruminor means to chew over again.1 This word has been used to describe the behaviour of a class of herbivorous mammals who, due to the indigestibility of the foods they eat, require that food is regurgitated and rechewed before being reswallowed to aid its breakdown and subsequent digestion.2 3 In certain herbivorous animals,3-5 rumination is, therefore, a normal, voluntary activity whereby gastric contents are brought up and rechewed as often as needed to optimise digestion.2 6...
The use of lithium metal anodes in solid-state batteries has emerged as one of the most promising technologies for replacing conventional lithium-ion batteries1,2. Solid-state electrolytes are a key enabling technology for the safe operation of lithium metal batteries as they suppress the uncontrolled growth of lithium dendrites. However, the mechanical properties and electrochemical performance of current solid-state electrolytes do not meet the requirements for practical applications of lithium metal batteries. Here we report a class of elastomeric solid-state electrolytes with a three-dimensional interconnected plastic crystal phase. The elastomeric electrolytes show a combination of mechanical robustness, high ionic conductivity, low interfacial resistance and high lithium-ion transference number. The in situ-formed elastomer electrolyte on copper foils accommodates volume changes for prolonged lithium plating and stripping processes with a Coulombic efficiency of 100.0 per cent. Moreover, the elastomer electrolytes enable stable operation of the full cells under constrained conditions of a limited lithium source, a thin electrolyte and a high-loading LiNi0.83Mn0.06Co0.11O2 cathode at a high voltage of 4.5 volts at ambient temperature, delivering a high specific energy exceeding 410 watt-hours per kilogram of electrode plus electrolyte. The elastomeric electrolyte system presents a powerful strategy for enabling stable operation of high-energy, solid-state lithium batteries.
Solid-state quantum devices use quantum entanglement for various quantum technologies, such as quantum computation, encryption, communication and sensing. Solid-state platforms for quantum photonics include single molecules, individual defects in crystals and semiconductor quantum dots, which have enabled coherent quantum control and readout of single spins (stationary quantum bits) and generation of indistinguishable single photons (flying quantum bits) and their entanglement. In the past 6 years, new opportunities have arisen with the emergence of 2D layered van der Waals materials. These materials offer a highly attractive quantum photonic platform that provides maximum versatility, ultrahigh light–matter interaction efficiency and novel opportunities to engineer quantum states. In this Review, we discuss the recent progress in the field of 2D layered materials towards coherent quantum photonic devices. We focus on the current state of the art and summarize the fundamental properties and current challenges. Finally, we provide an outlook for future prospects in this rapidly advancing field.
Therapeutic blockade of the immune checkpoint proteins programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) has transformed cancer treatment. However, the overall response rate to these treatments is low, suggesting that immune checkpoint activation is not the only mechanism leading to dysfunctional anti-tumour immunity. Here we show that butyrophilin-like protein 2 (BTNL2) is a potent suppressor of the anti-tumour immune response. Antibody-mediated blockade of BTNL2 attenuates tumour progression in multiple in vivo murine tumour models, resulting in prolonged survival of tumour-bearing mice. Mechanistically, BTNL2 interacts with local γδ T cell populations to promote IL-17A production in the tumour microenvironment. Inhibition of BTNL2 reduces the number of tumour-infiltrating IL-17A-producing γδ T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, while facilitating cytotoxic CD8+ T cell accumulation. Furthermore, we find high BTNL2 expression in several human tumour samples from highly prevalent cancer types, which negatively correlates with overall patient survival. Thus, our results suggest that BTNL2 is a negative regulator of anti-tumour immunity and a potential target for cancer immunotherapy.
Higher prevalence of autism in offspring born to mothers with rheumatoid arthritis has been reported in observational studies. We investigated (a) the associations between maternal and offspring’s own genetic liability for rheumatoid arthritis and autism-related outcomes in the offspring using polygenic risk scores (PRS) and (b) whether the effects were causal using Mendelian randomization (MR). Using the latest genome-wide association (GWAS) summary data on rheumatoid arthritis and individual-level data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, United Kingdom, we constructed PRSs for maternal and offspring genetic liability for rheumatoid arthritis (single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] p-value threshold 0.05). We investigated associations with autism, and autistic traits: social and communication difficulties, coherence, repetitive behaviours and sociability. We used modified Poisson regression with robust standard errors. In two-sample MR analyses, we used 40 genome-wide significant SNPs for rheumatoid arthritis and investigated the causal effects on risk for autism, in 18,381 cases and 27,969 controls of the Psychiatric Genetics Consortium and iPSYCH. Sample size ranged from 4992 to 7849 in PRS analyses. We found little evidence of associations between rheumatoid arthritis PRSs and autism-related phenotypes in the offspring (maternal PRS on autism: RR 0.89, 95%CI 0.73–1.07, p = 0.21; offspring’s own PRS on autism: RR 1.11, 95%CI 0.88–1.39, p = 0.39). MR results provided little evidence for a causal effect (IVW OR 1.01, 95%CI 0.98–1.04, p = 0.56). There was little evidence for associations between genetic liability for rheumatoid arthritis on autism-related outcomes in offspring. Lifetime risk for rheumatoid arthritis has no causal effects on autism.
It is estimated that half of all patients with heart failure (HF) have HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Yet this form of HF remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Differentiating HFpEF from other causes of dyspnoea may require advanced diagnostic methods, such as exercise echocardiography, invasive haemodynamics and investigations for HFpEF mimickers. While the classification of HF has relied heavily on cut points in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), recent evidence points towards a gradual shift in underlying mechanisms, phenotypes and response to therapies as LVEF increases. For example, among patients with HF, the proportion of hospitalisations and deaths due to cardiac causes decreases as LVEF increases. Medication classes that are efficacious in HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have been less so at higher LVEF ranges, decreasing the risk of HF hospitalisation but not cardiovascular or all cause death in HFpEF. These observations reflect the burden of non cardiac comorbidities as LVEF increases and highlight the complex pathophysiological mechanisms, both cardiac and non cardiac, underpinning HFpEF. Treatment with sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors reduces the risk of composite cardiovascular events, driven by a reduction in HF hospitalisations; renin angiotensin aldosterone blockers and angiotensin neprilysin inhibitors result in smaller reductions in HF hospitalisations among patients with HFpEF. Comprehensive management of HFpEF includes exercise as well as treatment of risk factors and comorbidities. Classification based on phenotypes may facilitate a more targeted approach to treatment than LVEF categorisation, which sets arbitrary cut points when LVEF is a continuum. This narrative review summarises the pathophysiology, diagnosis, classification and management of patients with HFpEF.
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) mostly affects young people. So far, endovascular treatment (EVT) has not been shown to be beneficial in CVT, partially because venous EVT tools are not yet fully optimized, and therefore EVT is only used as a rescue treatment in rare cases. Identifying a subgroup of CVT patients that could benefit from EVT is challenging, given the milder course of disease compared with acute ischemic stroke, the paucity of data on prognostic factors (both in the clinical and imaging domain), and the lack of consensus on what constitutes "technical success" in CVT EVT. In this review, we discuss the major obstacles that are encountered when trying to identify CVT patients that may benefit from EVT, and propose a roadmap that could help to overcome these challenges in the near future.