SARS-CoV-2 causes brain inflammation and induces Lewy body formation in macaques

Philippens, I. H. C. H. M. Boszormenyi, K. P. Wubben, J. A. Fagrouch, Z. C. van Driel, N. Mayenburg, A. Q. Lozovagia, D. Roos, E. Schurink, B. Bugiani, M. Bontrop, R. E. Middeldorp, J. Bogers, W. M. de Geus-Oei, L.-F. Langermans, J. A. M. Stammes, M. A. Verstrepen, B. E. Verschoor, E. J.

Biorxiv
Feb 23, 2021
10.1101/2021.02.23.432474
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SARS-CoV-2 may cause acute respiratory disease, but the infection can also initiate neurological symptoms. Here we show that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes brain inflammation in the macaque model. An increased metabolic activity in the pituitary gland of two macaques was observed by longitudinal positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT). Post-mortem analysis demonstrated infiltration of T-cells and activated microglia in the brain, and viral RNA was detected in brain tissues from one animal. We observed Lewy bodies in brains of all rhesus macaques. These data emphasize the virus capability to induce neuropathology in this nonhuman primate model for SARS-CoV-2 infection. As in humans Lewy body formation is an indication for the development of Parkinsons disease, this data represents a warning for potential long-term neurological effects after SARS-CoV-2 infection. One-Sentence SummarSARS-CoV-2 causes brain inflammation and Lewy bodies, a hallmark for Parkinson, after an asymptomatic infection in macaques.

Spin-orbit-coupling-induced half-skyrmion excitations in rotating and rapidly quenched spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates

Chao-Fei Liu, W. M. Liu

Phys. Rev. A
Sep 5, 2012
10.1103/physreva.86.033602
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We investigate the fractionalized Skyrmion excitations induced by spin-orbit coupling in rotating and rapidly quenched spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates. Our results show that the fractionalized Skyrmion excitation depends on the combination of spin-orbit coupling and rotation, and it originates from a dipole structure of spin which is always embedded in three vortices constructed by each condensate component respectively. When spin-orbit coupling is larger than a critical value, the fractionalized Skyrmions encircle the center with one or several circles to form a radial lattice, which occurs even in the strong ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic condensates. We can use both the spin-orbit coupling and the rotation to adjust the radial lattice. The realization and the detection of the fractionalized Skyrmions are compatible with current experimental technology.