Metabolic diseases are common worldwide and include diseases of overnutrition, such as obesity, or undernutrition, such as kwashiorkor. Both the immune system and the microbiota contribute to a variety of metabolic diseases; however, these two processes have largely been studied independently of one another in this context. The gastrointestinal system houses the greatest density of microbes but also houses one of the largest collections of immune molecules, especially Abs. The IgA isotype dominates the Ab landscape at mucosal sites, and a number of studies have demonstrated the importance of this Ab to the stability of the microbiota. In this article, we review the literature that demonstrates how homeostatic Ab responses control microbiota composition and function to influence metabolic disease. We propose that many metabolic diseases may arise from disruptions to homeostatic immune control of gut commensals and that further understanding this interaction can offer a novel opportunity for therapeutic interventions.