In many clinical applications, the transdermal route is used as an alternative approach to avoid the significant limitations associated with oral drug delivery. There is a long history for drug delivery through the skin utilizing transdermal microneedle arrays. Microneedles are reported to be versatile and very efficient devices. This technique has spurred both industrial and scientific curiosity, due to its outstanding characteristics such as painless penetration, affordability, excellent medicinal efficiency, and relative protection. Microneedles possess outstanding properties for diverse biomedical uses such as the delivery of very large substances with ionic and hydrophilic physicochemical properties. Importantly, microneedles are applicable in numerous biomedical fields such as therapy, diagnosis, and vaccine administration. Microneedles are emerging tools that have shown profound potential for biomedical applications. Transdermal microneedle technologies are likely to become a preferred route of therapeutic substances administration in the future since they are effective, painless, and affordable. In this review, we summarize recent advances in microneedles for therapeutic applications. We explore their constituent materials and fabrication methods that improve the delivery of critical therapeutic substances through the skin. We further discuss the practicality of advanced microneedles used as drug delivery tools.