In renal transplantation, monitoring procalcitonin (PCT) in the early post-transplant period can be a promising method for early tracking of infectious complications. However, the correlation between PCT and infection-related factors and immune components and renal function remains unclear. Between November 2017 and December 2018, 62 early-stage renal transplant recipients were selected, and 4 mL peripheral blood samples were collected to detect the changes of specific immune cells and cytokines. Our study was in compliance with the Helsinki Congress and the Declaration of Istanbul; no prisoners were used, and participants were neither paid nor coerced in our study. According to serum PCT levels, recipients were divided into a high group (PCT ≥ 0.5 ng/mL) and a low group (PCT < 0.5 ng/mL). Compared with the low group, creatinine, cystatin C, urea, T helper type (Th) 22 cells, IL-22 + Th17 cells, interleukin (IL)-22, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-17A increased while estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was decreased in the high group. In addition, PCT was significantly correlated with eGFR in the high group. Serum PCT is related with renal function and seems to be associated with immune components in early-stage renal transplant recipients.