In this review, we explore the historical development and future prospects of artificial intelligence (AI) and deep learning in astronomy. We trace the evolution of connectionism in astronomy through its three waves, from the early use of multilayer perceptrons, to the rise of convolutional and recurrent neural networks, and finally to the current era of unsupervised and generative deep learning methods. With the exponential growth of astronomical data, deep learning techniques offer an unprecedented opportunity to uncover valuable insights and tackle previously intractable problems. As we enter the anticipated fourth wave of astronomical connectionism, we argue for the adoption of GPT-like foundation models fine-tuned for astronomical applications. Such models could harness the wealth of high-quality, multimodal astronomical data to serve state-of-the-art downstream tasks. To keep pace with advancements driven by Big Tech, we propose a collaborative, open-source approach within the astronomy community to develop and maintain these foundation models, fostering a symbiotic relationship between AI and astronomy that capitalizes on the unique strengths of both fields.
Metal nanoclusters (NCs), an important class of nanoparticles (NPs), are extremely small in size and possess quasi-molecular properties. Due to accurate stoichiometry of constituent atoms and ligands, NCs have strong structure-property relationship. The synthesis of NCs is seemingly similar to that of NPs as both are formed by colloidal phase transitions. However, they are considerably different because of metal-ligand complexes in NC synthesis. Reactive ligands can convert metal salts to complexes, actual precursors to metal NCs. During the complex formation, various metal species occur, having different reactivity and fraction depending on synthetic conditions. It can alter their degree of participation in NC synthesis and the homogeneity of final products. Herein, we investigate the effects of complex formation on the entire NC synthesis. By controlling the fraction of various Au species showing different reactivity, we find that the extent of complex formation alters reduction kinetics and the uniformity of Au NCs. We demonstrate that this concept can be universally applied to synthesize Ag, Pt, Pd, and Rh NCs.
Lipid droplets (LDs) are dynamic organelles that contain an oil core mainly composed of triglycerides (TAG) that is surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer and LD-associated proteins called perilipins (PLINs). During LD biogenesis, perilipin 3 (PLIN3) is recruited to nascent LDs as they emerge from the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we analyze how lipid composition affects PLIN3 recruitment to membrane bilayers and LDs, and the structural changes that occur upon membrane binding. We find that the TAG precursors phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol (DAG) recruit PLIN3 to membrane bilayers and define an expanded Perilipin-ADRP-Tip47 (PAT) domain that preferentially binds DAG-enriched membranes. Membrane binding induces a disorder to order transition of alpha helices within the PAT domain and 11-mer repeats, with intramolecular distance measurements consistent with the expanded PAT domain adopting a folded but dynamic structure upon membrane binding. In cells, PLIN3 is recruited to DAG-enriched ER membranes, and this requires both the PAT domain and 11-mer repeats. This provides molecular details of PLIN3 recruitment to nascent LDs and identifies a function of the PAT domain of PLIN3 in DAG binding.
Bilayer graphene (BLG) is intriguing for its unique properties and potential applications in electronics, photonics, and mechanics. However, the chemical vapor deposition synthesis of large-area high-quality bilayer graphene on Cu is suffering from a low growth rate and limited bilayer coverage. Herein, we demonstrate the fast synthesis of meter-sized bilayer graphene film on commercial polycrystalline Cu foils by introducing trace CO2 during high-temperature growth. Continuous bilayer graphene with a high ratio of AB-stacking structure can be obtained within 20 min, which exhibits enhanced mechanical strength, uniform transmittance, and low sheet resistance in large area. Moreover, 96 and 100% AB-stacking structures were achieved in bilayer graphene grown on single-crystal Cu(111) foil and ultraflat single-crystal Cu(111)/sapphire substrates, respectively. The AB-stacking bilayer graphene exhibits tunable bandgap and performs well in photodetection. This work provides important insights into the growth mechanism and the mass production of large-area high-quality BLG on Cu.
Nanotechnology is a relatively revolutionary area that generates day-to-day advancement. It makes a significant impact on our daily life. For example, in parasitology, catalysis and cosmetics, nanoparticles possess distinctive possessions that make it possible for them in a broad range of areas. We utilized Mollugo oppositifolia L. aqueous leaf extract assisted chemical reduction method to synthesize Co3O4 nanoparticles. Biosynthesized Co3O4 Nps were confirmed via UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, EDX, Fourier-transform infrared, and HR-TEM analysis. The crystallite size from XRD studies revealed around 22.7 nm. The biosynthesized Co3O4 nanoparticle was further assessed for mosquito larvicidal activity against south-urban mosquito larvae Culex quinquefasciatus, and antimicrobial activities. The synthesized Co3O4 particle (2) displayed significant larvicidal activity towards mosquito larvae Culex quinquefasciatus with the LD50 value of 34.96 µg/mL than aqueous plant extract (1) and control Permethrin with the LD50 value of 82.41 and 72.44 µg/mL. When compared to the standard antibacterial treatment, Ciprofloxacin, the Co3O4 nanoparticle (2) produced demonstrates significantly enhanced antibacterial action against the pathogens E. coli and B. cereus. The MIC for Co3O4 nanoparticles 2 against C. albicans was under 1 μg/mL, which was much lower than the MIC for the control drug, clotrimale, which was 2 µg per milliliter. Co3O4 nanoparticles 2, with a MIC of 2 μg/mL, has much higher antifungal activity than clotrimale, whose MIC is 4 μg/mL, against M. audouinii.